Noticing issues like cracking walls, sticking doors, and uneven floors in your home can be worrying. These symptoms may signal foundation problems, or they could just be caused by normal settling of the house over time.
How do you tell the difference between settling and foundation problems? Settling causes gradual, evenly distributed cracks and looseness. At the same time, foundation issues lead to abrupt, localized symptoms like jammed doors and pronounced slopes. Carefully inspecting and monitoring all areas of the house is key to diagnosing uneven foundation sinking versus overall home settlement.
There are several ways you can evaluate signs throughout your home to determine if sinking foundations are to blame, and we go into detail below.
One of the main ways to tell if you have foundation problems versus normal settling is to look for cracks and separations in your home's structure. Settling usually causes small, diagonal cracks in walls and ceilings. Foundation issues lead to larger horizontal or vertical cracks or separations where two sections of the home have moved apart from each other. Check both interior and exterior walls for signs of cracking and shifting. Severe foundation problems may create gaps wide enough to see daylight or let in water.
Use a level to check your floors for flatness. Floor unevenness from settling is usually only noticeable over large expanses, like a sagging ridge along a hallway. Foundation problems typically create more abrupt uneven spots like low areas in one room. You may be able to detect them just by walking across the floor. Uneven floors from foundation issues will cause doors and cabinets to stick and appliances to rock. The slope may get more pronounced in one area, indicating the foundation is sinking in that spot.
Use a level, plumb line, or laser level on walls to check for vertical straightness. Settling can make walls lean slightly, but they're often still relatively vertical overall. Foundation issues lead to more dramatic wall leaning, especially localized to one area. You may also see ceiling slopes where the ceiling dips on one side. This indicates the foundation is sinking or bowing downward on that side. The roofline and other horizontal surfaces may also appear tilted or sloped.
Go outside and look for signs of foundation movement, like cracks in siding, separation between siding panels or trim boards, and shifting at wall corners. Settlement happens slowly and evenly, leading to general looseness. Sudden foundation sinking causes tighter cracks and separations. Also, look for cracks in exterior concrete, like steps, patios, and driveway slabs, that signal foundation problems. Tilting chimneys, shifting porches, and separating home additions can also indicate foundation failure.
Try opening doors and windows throughout the home. Settlement causes sticking from general looseness and lack of squareness in the frame. Foundation problems cause jamming from pronounced sagging, leaning, and twisting of the structure. Also, check window panes and glass doors for cracks that signal foundation shift. If windows and doors were originally installed plumb and square but are now out of position, the foundation is likely sinking.
Dripping faucets and leaks developing around sinks, tubs, and toilets may indicate foundation problems if no other cause is found. Settlement puts stress on pipes, which leads to slow drips and leaks. Foundation sinking can abruptly break piping and create sudden leaks at joints. Cracks in foundation walls also allow water intrusion from outside to damage interior plumbing.
Watch existing cracks over several weeks to see if they are enlarging, which indicates an active foundation problem. Settlement cracks will stay the same for long periods, whereas foundation cracks steadily worsen as the sinking continues. Gaps may widen enough over time to allow mice or insects to get in. Mark crack locations with tape and write dates to track changes.
Look for items like fences, deck railings, landscaping walls, and concrete paths near the home's foundation that appear tilted, shifted, or rotating. This warns the ground is moving differentially under part of the foundation, causing instability. Settlement would not cause rotating objects, only general loosening, and separation. Make sure covers are tight on these items to check for recent movement.
Pay attention over time for sticking doors that previously operated fine or new gaps forming between moldings, countertops, cabinets, and floors. These gradual changes signal foundation sinking. If settlement was occurring, you'd see consistent looseness rather than new sticking or separations. Constantly evolving symptoms indicate worsening foundation instability.
Check areas around the foundation for signs of poor drainage like water pooling, algae growth, erosion, or damp soil. Improper grading and insufficient runoff from roof gutters can allow excess water against the foundation, which softens the ground and enables sinking. Proper drainage helps prevent foundation issues, so improper drainage points to this cause.
If you suspect foundation problems, have a structural engineer, foundation repair company, or home inspector examine the house and take elevation measurements. They can definitively determine if the symptoms are due to settlement or foundation failure. This evaluation is crucial to designing the right repairs and preventing further damage. A trained professional can detect issues you might miss.
Noticing concerning signs in your home can be unsettling, but carefully evaluating the differences between settlement and foundation issues empowers you to understand what is happening. Look thoroughly throughout the interior and exterior for patterns of cracking, shifting, sticking, and leakage that points to a foundation problem versus general home settling. Monitor changes over time and have a professional assessment done if needed. Staying informed about the structural condition of your home is key to getting any necessary repairs addressed promptly to prevent further damage. With a methodical approach, you can determine if foundation problems are causing the symptoms and maintain the stability of your home.
About Dayton Foundation Repair Experts
Dayton Foundation Repair Experts are the local area's #1 concrete slab and pier & beam experts. We work diligently to bring our customers affordable services they can fully depend on. To schedule a no-strings-attached inspection and estimate, please call (937) 998-4353.
When should I be concerned about house settling?
Settling that occurs during the first two years after construction is normal as the house adjusts. However, ongoing settling after the initial period or any sudden shifts signals a potential problem that should be inspected further.
How do you diagnose foundation problems?
Look for signs like sticking doors, sloping floors, exterior cracks, and leakage issues that get progressively worse over time. Consulting a structural engineer to do a thorough evaluation and take elevation measurements can definitively diagnose foundation failure and guide appropriate repairs.